Kingdom of Jerusalem and Cyprus.

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niczego

Recruit
Seeing as it seems you guys are still working on this most excellent of mods and I had some free time and did some research on, arguably, the kingdom I am most interested in seeing. I don't know what you guys are planning for the faction but I think my suggestions cover many of the subjects.

Kingdom of Jerusalem and Cyprus.

Though technically separate states in the year 1200 the two were united in a personal union. Likewise I am suggesting the Principality of Antioch and County of Tripoli be included as, though largely independent, they were theoretically vassals of Jerusalem.

On a note Jerusalem was not a part of the kingdom at the time and the capitol was in Acre, causing some to call the country the Kingdom of Acre. However the official title was still that of Jerusalem so I think we should keep it.

As of 1200 the Third Crusade and the "follow up" crusades successfully saved the coastal territory of the Kingdom as well as reclaiming some other lands. A 5 year truce was signed in 1198 giving the Crusaders a breather while allowing the Muslims to concentrate on the civil war between Saladins grandson based in Egypt and his younger brother based in Syria.

Not the best map but it does show off the appropriate settlements:


Lords of the kingdom I have found:

King Amalric(Aimery? Sources are unclear as to his name.) II de Lusignian (age 55) Coat of Arms. Married to Queen Isabella I de Jerusalem (28?).

Constable of Jerusalem: John d'Ibelin (age 21) Coat of Arms.

Marshal of Jerusalem: John, no other information.

Seneschal of Jerusalem: Ralph de Tiberias. Wife: Agnes de Grenier.

Chancellor of Jerusalem: Joscius, Archbishop of Tyre.

Seneschal of Cyprus: Amaury de Rivet

Constable of Cyprus: Guy de Beirut(?)

Chancellor of Cyprus: Alan, archdeacon of Lydda and Archbishop of Nicosia.

Count of Sidon: Reginold de Sidon (70?), married to Helvis d'Ibelin (30?) (sister of John d'Ibelin). He is usually described as “very ugly and very wise”.

Prince of Antioch: Bohemond III d'Antioch “the Stammerer” (56). Coat of Arms.  Married to Isabelle (no other information).

Constable of Antioch: Roger de Monts

Marshal of Antioch: Hugh Flancort or Thomas (the year of one “term” ending is the same as the others beginning)

Chancellor of Antioch: Albert Archbishop of Taurus.

Patriarch of Antioch: Peter d'Angouleme

Count of Tripoli: Bohemund d'Antioch (28?) also called “Cyclops” Coat of Arms. Married to Plaisance Embriaco de Giblet. In conflict with the Hospitaller Order. Son and heir of Bohemund III.

Constable of Tripoli: Gerard de Ham

Marshal of Tripoli: John

Prince of Galilee and Tiberias: Hugues II de Saint-Omer (50?) Coat of Arms Married to Marguerite d'Ibelin (sister of John d'Ibelin)

Lord of Caesarea: Aymar de Lairon. Married to Juliana Grenier.

Lord Walter de Cesarea (20), son of Juliana Grenier from her first marriage; heir to Caesarea. Ally of John d'Ibelin.

Lord of Arsuf: Thierry d’Orca (26) Married to Melisende d'Arsuf (23).

Lord of Montgisard: Reginald

Lord of Scandeleon: Raymund

Population of the Kingdom of Jerusalem:
The inhabitants of the Kingdom of Jersualem included Catholics (both born in the Middle East and new arrivals, mostly Italians and French) Greek and Syrian Christians, Shia and Sunni Arabs, Sufis, Beduin, Turks, Druze, Jews and Samaritans.
At its territorial peek the Catholics are estimated to have made about 25% of the population with the largest percentage being Syrian Christians. However due to the massive loss of land following the Islamic conquest under Salah ad-Din meant that the population included a much higher percentage of Catholics to other faiths.

The integration was not complete but nor was there any particular segregation, interaction between various groups was based on practical co-existence. Though the Catholics were the rulers most locals were allowed to retain their land and many were employed in the Kingdoms administration.

The Armies of Catholic Outremer.

The armies of the Latin States were, essentially, purely western European in style and borrowing from the Islamic and Oriental Christian world were minimal. The armies did change, of course, to suit their new enemies and, more importantly, the climate. Much of the equipment used grew lighter to limit exhaustion in the heat, especially since the weapons used by their enemies were not much of a threat to a properly armoured soldier. For such reason mail became the almost exclusive metal armour worn by the Latin soldiers as it offered excellent protection while still allowing their bodies to breath. Due to the wealth of the region even militias had high quality equipment.

Representatives of the non Catholic population were rarely used as soldiers though they were present, the most famous being the Turcopole who served as light cavalry. The Beduin frequently served as allies to the Latin states as well. Also worth noting is the fact that, contrary to what a certain video game claims, the Hashashin (Nizari Ismailis to be more precise) were not enemies of the Templars but rather there vassals (sic!) paying them tribute and in return the Templars assisted them whenever neighboring Muslim lords attempted to crush the sect.

After the third crusade the military of the Levant changed and began following Western standards more closely, due to the decreased military potential, decreased wealth of the inhabitants of the Kingdoms as well as the increasingly frequency with which Muslims employed European arms and armour in battle, purchased primarily from Italy (Saladin is recorded to have said “I buy arms from Franks to kill Franks”).

This would make the period we are interested in a transitional period, were some are still using older style equipment while others would already be using newer kit.

It seems that personal coat of arms were not frequently used in battle with the most popular symbol being the cross of Saint George (ergo red on white). Fitting as saint George was the patron saint of Crusaders.

Examples of “Pre-Hattin” equipment:
 

Post-Hattin:

As far as Troop Types are concerned I’d suggest the cities follow the French or Italian troop tree and Castles follow the French “professional” troop tree with some changes to reflect local differences (arms and armour would be of a generally higher standard for example).

The villages are a bit tricky due to the mixed population but I was thinking the Bedouin tree might be good with some changes to equipment and names to represent to non-catholic inhabitants of the kingdoms.

I don’t know how you want to incorporate the Templars and Hospitallers (and the other orders) into the game but I would like to address a pet peeve of mine, at this time Warrior Monks were obliged by law to wear monks habits into battle. It was not comfortable and numerous attempts were made to change it but it wasn’t until 1250 that the Pope gave permission for the members of monastic orders to wear surcoats on campaign.

Until that time Knights of military orders went into battle wearing habits over their armour like so:

Soldiers in the service of the order but not brothers themselves had no such obligation however.

The templar’s official symbol was not a red cross on white but a divided black and white field, the red cross on white being the symbol of secular crusaders. Though sergeants of the templar order wore a red cross (on black!) the brothers of the order had no such obligation and though many would wear a small cross over their heart the majority of sources seem to say that many brothers didn’t have a cross on their military garments at all.

This shows the appropriate colours of the a Templar Brother:

The Poor knights of Christ (Templars) and the Knights of Saint John (Hospitallers) were the most powerful monastic orders in Outremer and, especially after Hattin, crucial to the Kingdoms defense. There were also numerous "lesser" orders, such as the Knights of the Holy Sepulchre, the Knights of Saint Lazarus and the Knights of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (Teutonic knights).

Though the Teutonic order has a lot of fans, for some obscure reason :???:, in 1200 it was a new and minor order, lesser than the others. It wouldn't be until the "crusade" of Frederick II that the order gained strength as they supported Frederick's claim to the throne and were rewarded with vast holdings. 

Another peeve of mine is the weird idea of the Kingdoms cross being that as the one from that horrible movie, “Kingdom of Heaven”, ergo gold on blue. The cross of the Kingdom of Jerusalem was this. As stated previously the majority of combatants of the Latin states used a red cross on white.
 

quapitty

Sergeant Knight
M&BWBWF&S
Thanks a lot for your reasearch. Quite profound. It might become handy when it will ever come to this point...  Hopefully :smile:
 

niczego

Recruit
Well if it helps even a little bit than I will be a happy individual.  :grin:

I have added some more information and I have come across something interesting (for me at least). It seems that the Catholics born in Outre-mer called themselves by a specific name. The book I had was in Polish and my attempts to find the equivalent in English has come up with nothing.

The word is "Pullanie", this is additionally the plural and I am not sure to the singular. If someone knows how the word is in English (or French as I am guessing that were it is derived from) than i would be grateful.
 

niczego

Recruit
Thank you, now I can die happy.

Actually, maybe not die but you get the gist. Thanks also for the article.
 
I only praise the team of mod E1200 but I will praise you too for researching Jerusalem and Cyprus. Since I love all games that have Jerusalem and me be able to make my own Crusades or Jihad (depends on the mood) I really can't wait for new version to come out. I hope only that the city of J will be done detailed. If team wants I can do research on Rome,London,Constantinopole,Venize and (my favorite) Belgrade how they looked durin 1100-1300 ages. So the team would make it more interesting during siege and town fights to gaze upon of might walls of Constantinople or things like that. I would love to see the uniqe things in Capital citys.
 
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