The Assassins ceremonial garb included a long white tunic with red finishings as well as a red cap & girdle
- they would carry ceremonial axes with several daggers attached to them during meetings
To assassinate Muslim targets - any costume would suffice, the most popular was that of a begger
When assassinating crusaders - the most favored disguise was to dress as a monk
they did study christian theology and Frankish languages to blend in
- terror operations that only involved striking fear in the target's heart
were accomplished by sending a dagger thrust into a pillow or a piece of bread,
usually accompanied by a letter with a death threat
- they would occasionally serve their rivals as they were very keen on gaining a fearsome reputation
A weapon was recorded that was made up of three daggers attached together
- purely ceremonial but deeply provoking & chilling !
The Futuwwa (الفتوة) (from the word fata = youth) were originally a group of religious Sufis who held a chivalric like code of honor and were common among the Ahdath (militia) and military volunteers. Later on the Abbasid caliph transformed them into a group of crossbow guardsmen to counter the hashashin menace.
They formed a secret society based on that of the assassins, of who were there mortal enemies. The initiation ceremony would included the drinking of a salted drink and their insignia was to wear a pair of patched trousers called saraweel al futuwa. They were the only military unit trusted to freely use crossbows and messenger pigeons anywhere.
Anyone could join the Futuwwa Brotherhood order although only Muslims could have a full membership. They also operated outside of Baghdad occasionally and were found throughout the Levant. During the Mamluk period, with the fall of the Hashashin, the Futuwwa groups still existed as a fraternal society and both sultan Baibars and Berk Khan were known members.
the Ayyarun (عيارون) were the complete opposite - they were a group of disorganized vagabonds who were the Robin Hoods of the middle east. they were well known for robbery, theft, extortion and violence. they emerged as the natural product of political upheavals, corruption and the need for leadership in the chaotic world of the crusades. in other worlds they were gangs that held the order in an urban society during a political vacuum. They probably wore red shirts and headbands.
The irony here is that an old Arabian name for thieves is today used to describe
anyone smart, competitive or performing a good job at something,
especially students who submit their homework on time or often get good grades!
Ms c-23 f.99a Thieves Taking their Loot, - 'Maqamat Al-Hariri' (1054-1121), c.1240 (vellum)