[research] republican Rome

rgcotl

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M&BWB
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we also need help with republican Rome
[the main time frame ~300BC-200BC]
so if you know something about thems then help us do an historical faction with yours knowledge


edit some references


the last one could be that wont fit our era



MOUNTED LEGIONARY, EQUES
In this reconstruction we show an eques standing beside his mount, fully equipped for campaign, from the time of the Third Macedonian War. He is an aristocratic youth. He wears a Boiotian helmet with a horsehair plume, which is dyed red. He has equipped himself with a short, iron mail shirt with cape-like shoulder doubling and a slit at each side of the bottom edge, giving ease of movement when mounting and dismounting as well making for an easy mounted seat. He carries a large round, flat shield made of wicker and covered in hide, complete with a wooden spindle boss reinforced with a sheet-metal boss plate and plain, painted face. He has a cavalry spear with a small, socketed iron spearhead and butt-spike. A long, straight Greek-pattern sword -a slashing weapon with a longer reach than the gladius - hangs at his left hip from a baldric. He wears a woollen tunic dyed red, and Thracian-style boots. His mount is equipped with a Celtic four-horned saddle, which sits on a tasseled saddlecloth, plain leather reins and bridle, an iron snaffle bit and a plain leather harness. Slung behind the saddle is his campaign equipment, which includes a rolled paenula, mess tin, camp kettle, water gourd, leather satchel and a feed bag for the horse.
1.
Boiotian helmet
2.
Attic helmet
3.
short, iron mail shirt
4.
Thracian-style boots
5.
Greek-pattern sword
6.
Celtic four-horned saddle



THIRD-LINE LEGIONARY, TRIARIUS
In this reconstruction we show a triarius, fully equipped for campaign, from the time of the Hannibalic War. He is a citizen of substance, a battle-scarred veteran. He wears an Etrusco-Corinthian helmet, a peculiar and perverted development of the closed Greek Corinthian helmet commonly worn by hoplites. For battle this was usually adorned with upright feathers (purple or black) and a fore-and-aft horsehair crest (undyed), but these have been removed for the march. He has equipped himself with a long, iron mail shirt and Italic strap-on bronze greave on his left leg, though many triarii would equip themselves with a pair. He carries an oval-shaped body shield, or scutum, with metal binding top and bottom and a metal boss plate (copper alloy or iron), which is reinforcing the wooden spindle boss. He is gripping with his right hand an old-style long thrusting spear, or hasta, with a large, socketed iron spearhead and a bronze butt-spike. A gladius is carried in its scabbard high on the right hip, as is a pugio on the left hip. He wears an undyed woollen tunic and a pair of caligae. He also wears a form of coarse woollen hooded cloak, the poncho-like paenula, commonly worn by everyone, soldiers and civilians, rich and poor, in inclement weather. Invariably of a yellow-brown hue, the body is cut from a single piece of cloth, to hang with a straight lower edge. It is fastened down the front, to mid-chest level, with two button-and-loop fastenings and two bone or wooden toggles. Its pointed hood has been sewn on separately. It is travel-stained. Behind him grazes a mule carrying the leather tent, digging tools, quern stones and pots and pans of the triarius' eight-man contubernium.
1. paenula
2. Etrusco-Corinthian helmet
3. long, iron mail shirt
4. hasta
5. gladius
6. pugio



SECOND-LINE LEGIONARY, PRINCIPES
Camillan system
Principes were armed with short spears, or hastae, up to 1.8 metres (6 ft) long. They fought in quincunx formation, usually carrying scuta, large rectangular shields, and bronze helmets, often with a number of feathers fixed onto the top to increase stature. They wore heavier armour types, the most common form being chainmail, which offered a good degree of protection without hindering movement.[5]

Polybian system
By the time of the Punic wars of the 2nd century BC, this form of organisation was found to be inefficient. In a new Polybian system, infantry were sorted into classes according to age and experience rather than wealth, the principes being older veterans with a greater degree of experience.[8] Their equipment and role was very similar to the previous system, except they now carried swords, or gladii, instead of spears. Each princeps also carried 2 pila, heavy javelins that bent on impact to prevent them being removed from the victim or thrown back[9]



number2


FIRST-LINE LEGIONARY, HASTATUS
In this reconstruction we show a hastatus, in fighting order, from the time of the Pyrrhic War. He is a citizen of few means: he wears an unadorned Montefortino helmet and possesses no body armour, no greaves and is barefooted. A bronze pectoral plate (about 20cm square) is strapped across his upper chest. He carries an oval-shaped body shield, or scutum, with metal binding on the top and bottom and a sheet-metal boss plate (copper alloy or iron), which reinforces the wooden spindle boss. He is holding two pila, one heavy and one lightweight. An Iberian-pattern cut-and-thrust sword (a straight-bladed, sharp-pointed weapon from which the celebrated Roman gladius Hispaniensis would evolve) is carried in its scabbard high on the right hip. He wears an undyed woollen tunic. It is threadbare and patched.
It is worth noting that the term hastati, spearmen, should be taken to mean armed with throwing spears, namely pila, instead of thrusting ones. This is, after all, the sense it bears out in our earliest surviving example of it, in Ennius' line 'hastati spargunt hasti', meaning 'hastati who hurl hasti' {Annates fr. 284 Vahlen), and their name probably reflects a time when they alone used pila.
1. Montefortino helmet
2. bronze pectoral
3. two pila (one heavy, one lightweight)
4. Iberian-pattern sword
5. Italic scutum





Leves or Velites
Leves (Singular: Levis) were javelin-armed skirmishers in the army of the early Roman republic
They were usually outfitted with just a number of light javelins and no other equipment
Danik Golovanov said:
Velites is a light infantry with light or no body armour at all, equipped with a round shield and animal skin on their head (usually wolf fur) for recognition. They were throwing light javelins and had gladius as a backup weapon.


Velites were light infantry and skirmishers who were armed with a number of light javelins, or hastae velitares, to fling at the enemy, and also carried short thrusting swords, or gladii for use in melee.
They did carry small wooden shields for protection though, and wore a headdress made from wolf skin to allow officers to differentiate between them and other heavier legionaries.

centurions
4c bc roman centurion


2c bc roman centurions


Tribunes
3c bc roman tribune
 

Bloodbeag

Veteran
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instead of just searching on google then putting pictures here ill say what i know.
Their infantry was spilt into 3 categories: hastati being the young poor men, the principes being the slightly older and richer, the triarii being older still and even richer and then there was the cavalry who were mostly the aristocrats who would have a spear and small shield and mostly no sword. The ranged units were the velited who were the poorest men who would have jaelins, bows and anything they could throw.
 

rgcotl

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well here we are collecting all info and especially references
cause we are not going to release a faction with single armor and 3 helmets
so our hopes is that comunity may help us with it and we can waste our time on doing real things for a mod
 

Seek n Destroy

Marquis
WBWF&S
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Now that you have a board I will just repost it:










Some more I haven't posted before:





http://tw.greywool.com/i/**-l7.jpg



 

rgcotl

Count
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any idea who has to wear number 1 helmet(is this somekind of officers helmet?) ?
and maybe someone saw more references of this type of helmet?
 

Seek n Destroy

Marquis
WBWF&S
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From what I know it is a variation of the boiotian helmet with crest (that's what the reference says) usually used by roman equites although I have seen richer Etruscan footman troops using a similar helmet.

More refs:





 

Atikus

Regular
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Seek n Destroy said:
Now that you have a board I will just repost it:










Some more I haven't posted before:





http://tw.greywool.com/i/**-l7.jpg



Where on the interwebz to you obtain such great pictures?!
 

Big Daddy Vitallion

Master Knight
WBNW
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DarthTaco said:
The majority of these were from an Osprey book that confidentially, I have.
Osprey books are the most brilliant historical reference books out there. Such detail.. such fines, such historical accuracy.

It sickens me how good they are.
 

Stevon

Knight at Arms
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Here's some more references for you guys. :wink:
Note: All labels read left to right.

Roman Eques


Hastatus and phalangite


Battle of Bagrada (255 BC)


Battle of Cannae (216 BC)


Hastati and Velites


Triarii and Principes


Hastatus and Princeps


Princeps, Eques, Veles


Princeps, Hastatus, Triarius


Triarius and Hastatus


Triarius, Hastatus, Veles


Triarius, Princeps, and Veles


Princeps


Triarius


Triarius


Veles (all of the rest)












Montefortino and Etrusco-corinthian helmets
 
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The main classes in Republican Rome would be Velites, Hastati/Princeps, Triarii and Equites. If you played Rome total war you may already know them, though when I played it I didn't pay much attention to the difference.

Velites is a light infantry with light or no body armour at all, equipped with a round shield and animal skin on their head (usually wolf fur) for recognition. They were throwing light javelins and had gladius as a backup weapon.



Hastati were also recruited from the youngest and poorest people, but they were still slightly richer than Velites and had light body armour as well as a large shield. From 300 BC their standard equipment was two Pila javelins (the heavy version of pilum) and a gladius sword. Principes was the older and more experienced soldiers, but with similar equipment to Hastati. Notice on the second picture that javelins with lead balls designed to bevel the javelin on impact, were not introduced yet during the Punic wars period.

Their scutums were oval formed, slightly bowed, and had varying look and sometimes also Celtic inspired decorations like Celtic patterns and animals. They were not equal and red, blue or green like after Marian military reform in 100 BC.


The man below to left is a Triarii




Triarii was the most experienced and the richest veteran soldiers after Equites. They were equipped with a 2 meters long Hastae and gladius as secondary weapon.


The men in front are Hastati or Principes, the two guys in tunics are velites/veles, and the spearmen behind are Triarii. Deeming on the armour the two men to left are officers. The tactic was that Velites threw javelins on the enemies followed by Hastati, and if their attack wasn't enough the Principes charged. If Principes failed, the elite Triarii stepped in to the end.


Velites in the back (without animal fur for some reason) Hastati or Principes to left, Triarii to right


The Roman Equstrian Order played the role as the Roman cavalry and was originally open only to Patricians, and the members were called Equites. In the early Republic era as the number of Patrician families diminished greatly, Roman Equestrian order was also opened to non-Patricians (Plebeians).  They were equipped with Corinthian helmets, Celtic chainmails or Hellenistic cuirass for body armour, and scutum or a round shield. Historians also suggests that the Equites also choose between 2 combinations such as a lance with no shield or short spear with shield. the swords they carried were gladius or the longer sword Spatha. Needless to say, the Roman cavalry borrowed much from the Greeks and many other neighbour countries.




 

FrisianDude

Archduke
M&BWB
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Ej777 said:
DarthTaco said:
The majority of these were from an Osprey book that confidentially, I have.
Osprey books are the most brilliant historical reference books out there. Such detail.. such fines, such historical accuracy.

It sickens me how good they are.
Similarly, Ancient Warfare Magazine.

Stevon said:
Battle of Bagrada (255 BC)
When I saw this one on an Igor Dzis blog just a few minutes before seeing it here I initially thought they were Romans as well. I looked the battle up on Wikipedia and thought it was the mercenaries war battle, but this is the 255bc one, not the 239 bc one. :grin: So they are, indeed, Romans. The guy with the scale armour standing on the dead elephant is dapper as ****, he just looks smashing there. :grin:
 

Gothic Knight

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Correction to comment on equites. The spatha didn't exist for romans in this era. I think they used the xiphos and maybe the kopis
 

Seek n Destroy

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Xiphos or Kopis? Good to know, I read somewhere that they used a longer version of the Gladius Hispaniensis so I just elongated ( I don't know if it is the correct term; I scaled the length of the blade) the model you made.