[research] iberians

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Are you serious?
Judging from this sentence you believe the Corinthian helmet was worn only on your face,
You got to be kidding me...

When I was talking about covering thing, it is widely understood it means DURING THE BATTLE. not previously, not after (wich were the cases a corinthian helmet were carried over your head) In 0 cases the corinthian was not covering your face during battle.

I can't believe I have to explain such obvious fact so I tend to think you are trolling= waste of time.
I won't say again what I did in the last sentence of my last message, but do it :wink:

I'm trying to explain to you why I thought it was a Corinthian helmet, which it technically is, and while doing so being professional as I could about it.

I won't stoop down to insulting you, but I will say that I think its better to discontinue this argument and let a better topic take course in this research thread.
Well let me tell you that stating a false sentence due to be poorly informed about what you're talking about can not be even considered being professional  :facepalm:

And no, they are not even technically the same. The are SIMILAR, (because of the evolution of one into the other, and it was not the only evolution the corinthian had, btw) but not the same helmet. Do you want another argument? (and I am at least giving supporting my arguments with stuff) 1 simple word: Cheekpieces :wink:

I don't know why you feel such hostility towards me (be it the chocolate comment or natural dislike towards others) to constantly be at my neck with these derisive comments. The professional comment was referring to how I was presenting my argument towards you. I by no means claim to be know it all History professional and gladly admit I was mistaken when identifying the helmet as just a Corinthian helmet, but I wanted to explain how I got to the conclusion of why I thought it was a Corinthian helmet. That being said, I wish we could've discussed this in a more civil manner free of veiled name calling and no you dummy that's not right sort of rebuttals.

When I look back as to how this whole pointless argument started, it could've been avoided if you just stated what helmet it was, as well as additional information rather than just,

tenerife_boy said:
It's not a corinthian helmet  :lol:
Statue of a Galician King or "Princeps",
Lezenho in southern Gallaecia ca. 400 B.C.
Drawing made by André Pena  :arrow: http://www.tartan.galician.org/kilts.htm

:arrow: http://lusitaniaecastrum.blogspot.aehttps://forums.taleworlds.com/Smileys/phpbb/icon_arrow.gif/2014/08/guerreiros-galaico-lusitanos.html






Dress and weapons of a Celtic warrior
from Galicia in the 3rd century B.C.


Vaccaei warrior and his hound by Luis Pascual Repiso


more reconstructions...

:arrow: https://www.celticcultureblog.tk/art/the-celtiberians.html













Florent Vincent, The Army of Caesar
in the Gallic war 58-50 year BC
(posted on behalf of Alegria1:cool:


Sandra Delgado





Ángel Benito Gastañaga


Akshay Misra





Sandra Delgado - Indibilis, leader of the Illergets


Carlos Alberto Santos - Lusitanians, 2nd century BC


Iñaki Diéguez Uribeondo - Asturian warrior, 2nd to 3rd centuries BC


Luis Pascual Repiso - The funeral ceremony of the Vaccaei warrior

Well after 4 years I can at least contribute something now.

I will post more when the Uni Library Opens up.

From left to right: Gallic,Libyian,Celtiberian,Latin
bros so this music video came out, its from an iberian band and its about the siege of numantia and how a few soldiers sneaked by the roman siege to ask other cities for help
everything in the video is historically accurate, as far as i know, the video used alot of reenactors and i think you could take inspiration from the garments of the various warriors


Statues of Gallaecian warriors. Dated out mid-2nd B.C. to mid-1st century A.D. (in discussion)

Based on above. North-western warrior reconstructed by Berto Peña.
Gallaecian warrior reconstructed by Iñaki Dieguéz Uribeondo.(his weapons are the same of his neighbors Cantabrians, Asturians and Basques.)

In article of 2011 Quesada said about Lusitanian weaponry:
"Most of Viriato's men would cover themselves with the heavy woolen cloak or sagum and carry weapons such as a spear or a circular shield, in addition to perhaps a short antennae sword or a dagger.
The typical falcata of the southeast of the peninsula was a rarity in the Lusitanian area."

Reconstruction of a Lusitanian warrior of the 2nd century B.C. by Marek Szyszko.(*his shield boss was proper of the vettonic area during the 2nd century BC)

How to hold a caetra by Carlos Fernández del Castillo.

Vettonic knight of the 3rd century BC reconstructed by Carlos Fernández del Castillo.
(*The Lusitanian weaponry is not well known but it is believed that it would be very similar to that used by their neighbors the Vettones.)

Vettonic votive figurine of Castro de la Mesa de Miranda, Chamartín.




Evolution of the funerary equipment in Celtiberian cemeteries.(*To the defensive weapons we could add the hispano-chalcidian helmets, which are dated to the middle of the 4th century B.C. and have been found very recently)

Celtiberian warrior of the mid-3rd century BC by José Luis García Morán.

Celtiberian warrior of the 3rd or 2nd centuries BC by José Luis García Morán.

Celtiberian banner bearer of the 2nd century BC by Iván Gil.

Celtiberian light infantry of the 4th-1st centuries BC by Carlos Fernández del Castillo. (*Big belts were a symbol of status of the Iberian and Celtiberian elites.)

A rich vaccean knight of the 4rth century BC by Jose Luís García Morán.
(*His shield is typical of the region, with a concave body and equipped with tie rods as tensioners, as well as a characteristic boss with open and serrated end, finished off in a crosshead.
The point of the spear has ornamental grooves, but the most outstanding weapon is the dagger of Monte bernorio type that is attached to the belt. Their delicate appearance reveals that this type of weapon also operated as display elements and signs of ostentation among the Vaccean elites. The pieces that make up the harness and head of the horse are based on finds from tombs in the region and on southern parallels.)(*Apparently Vacceans didn't use swords.)

Warriors vessel of Numancia (2nd century BC)

Some Celtiberian coins:



Cantabrian/Asturian warrior reconstructed by Berto Peña. (*it's very probably that the Gallaecians, the Basques, the Asturians and the Cantabrians did not differ much from each other.)

Cantabrian/Asturian nobleman reconstructed by Pablo Outeiral. Late 3rd or 2nd century B.C.(There were no Montefortian helmets in the peninsula until the Punic Wars.)

Spoils of war represented in a coin from 25BC

Conmemorative coin of Augustus for his victory over cantabrian and Astyrs(1st century AD) *Outside of shoutern Spain, the finds of falcatas are very rare.

Suposed Cantabrian/Asturian warrior (discussed) in the arch of Carpentras (1st century AD)


Diadema de Moñes 2nd-3rd century BC. We can appreciate warriors holding two spears and little round shields as lusitanians and other north-western tribes.
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Coins of Arsaos, Navarre, 150-100 BC, showing Roman stylistic influence. *probably the way of life and weaponry of the Basques was not different from that of their cantabrian and Asturian neighbors.

Denarius of Baskunes. Sertorian wars. (1 AD)


Iberian weaponry evolution.600 to 300 centuries B.C. *Left column: low Andalucia, at the center: south-east peninsula and, on the right: Catalonia.

Braganza Brooch. Greek manufacture, it's a present to local chief. (early 3rd century to late 2nd century BC)(Band plate boss was the commonest between the 300 and 125 B.C.)

Cavalryman of Osuna (3rd/2nd BC)

Jinete de Moixent. 4th century BC.

Warrior figurines of Collado de los jardines.4th century B.C.

Iberian burial by José Luis García Morán. Previously posted by matmohair1 in this threat.

Archeological distribution of falcata. * Distribution of the Iberian falcata. Note its virtual absence not only from the Meseta but also in Catalonia, an 'Iberian' area. (corrected)

Southern Iberian noble warrior of the 4th century BC by José Luis García Morán.

Another example of Southern Iberian noble warrior at the same age by Carlos Fernández del Castillo.
(*That leather armor is proper of the South-East of the Peninsula.)

North-Eastern Iberian warrior of the mid-3rd century BC.

Different types of southeastern Iberian infantry during the 4th century BC.
Source: "Weapons, warriors and battles of the Ancient Iberia" Quesada Sanz. 2010

Balearic people:

The Balearic indigenous peoples were neither Celtiberian nor Iberian because they had their own culture, the Talaiotic culture.

Balearic slinger hired by Carthage. 4rth century B.C. by Jose Luis García Morán.
(*He has a falcata, based on the necropolis of Son pelliser (Calviá, Mallorca), which are imported from the peninsula or perhaps objects of loot or diplomatic gifts. The shield that hangs from his shoulder, in this case made of leather, would perhaps be similar to the one we see represented in some typical bronze statuettes of the Islands.)

Balearic slinger by Carlos Fernández del Castillo.(*It's also uknown that the balearic soldiers served as javaliners in the Carthaginian armies.) (*Its appearance is basically taken from Strabo (3,5,1), who attributed to the Phoenicians the introduction of striped tunics in the Balearic Islands. The goatskin that protects the forearm and the three braided black slings, one in the hand, one at the waist, and another wrapped around the forehead, also appear in Strabo and Diodorus.(5,18 ))

Balearic slingers by Jenny Dolfen.(*The proof of Shields were being used by Balearic people are the indigenous statuary.)

Mars Balearicus carrying a shield. 4th or 3rd century B.C.
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Historical sources:

Lusitanians and Vettones:

"The Lusitanians are said to be experts in ambushes and explorations. They carry light weapons and are experts in manouvers.
They have a small shield two feet in diameter, concave on the front and attached because it has no clamp or handles, and they also carry a dagger or knife. Most wear linen coats; those who wear them of mail and helmets with three feathers (*Probably hispano-calcidic helmets) are rare,
and the rest wear helmets of nerves. Those on foot wear greaves(*Maybe a type o high shocks,probably common among all of the Spanish people) and several spears each.
Some also use spears, whose point are of bronze."
Strabo III, 3,6 (1st century AD)

"The most valiant among the Iberians are those who are known as Lusitanians, who carry in war very small shields which are interwoven with cords of sinew and are able to protect the body unusually well, because they are so tough; and shifting this shield easily as they do in their fighting, now here, now there, they cleverly ward off from their person every blow which comes at them. They also use barbed javelins made entirely of iron, and wear helmets and swords very much like those of the Celtiberians. They hurl the javelin with good effect, even over a long distance, and, in fine, are doughty in dealing their blows. Since they are nimble and wear light arms, they are swift both in flight and in pursuit, but when it comes to enduring the hardships of a stiff fight they are far inferior to the Celtiberians."
Diodorus Siculus § 5.34.(1st century BC)

"And this people, it would appear, provide for warfare not only excellent cavalry but also foot-soldiers who excel in prowess and endurance. They wear rough black cloaks, the wool of which resembles the hair of goats.

As for their arms, certain of the Celtiberians, carry light shields like those of the Gauls, and certain carry circular wicker shields as large as an aspis [Greek shield], and about their shins and calves they wind greaves made of hair and on their heads they wear bronze helmets adorned with red crests(*Purple in other translations). The swords they wear are two-edged and wrought of excellent iron, and they also have dirks a span in length which they use in fighting at close quarters. And a peculiar practice is followed by them in the fashioning of their weapons; for they bury plates of iron in the ground and leave them there until in the course of time the rust has eaten out what is weak in the iron and what is left is only the most unyielding, and of this they then fashion excellent swords and such other objects as pertain to war. The weapon which has been fashioned in the manner described cuts through anything which gets in its way, for no shield or helmet or bone can withstand a blow from it, because of the exceptional quality of the iron. Able as they are to fight in two styles, they first carry on the contest on horseback, and when they have defeated the cavalry they dismount, and assuming the rôle of foot-soldiers they put up marvellous battles."
Diodorus Siculus 5,33(1st century BC)

Cantabri and Astyrs
"They live a simple life, drinking water, sleeping on the floor, and wearing long hair like women. In combat they gird their foreheads with a shash.
(...) They practiced gymnastic exercises, with weapons, on horseback, boxing and races, shooting darts and fighting in battalions. (...) All generally wear capes of fur, (...) Such is the life of the mountaineers, that is to say, as I have said of the peoples that occupy the northern side of Iberia: the Gallaecians and Asturians and Cantabrians up to the basques and the Pyrenees. Since the life of all of them is identical."
Strabo 3,3,7 (1st century AD)

This was a Cantabrian, Larus by name, who could have inspired fear even unarmed; so gigantic was his frame. After the fashion of his nation he fought with a battle-axe; and, though he saw the ranks around him defeated and overthrown, yet, when all his countrymen were destroyed, he filled single-handed the places of the slain. If his foe stood face to face, Larus rejoiced to glut his rage by smiting him on the forehead; or, if he was forced to meet an enemy on his left hand, he whirled his weapon round and struck a sidelong blow. Or when a victorius foe attacked him from behind, he was not dismayed but could ply his axe in that direction" (Silius Italicus, Punica XVI, 46-69: Punica : Silius Italicus, Tiberius Catius : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive).

Balearic people:
"after sailing like crabs on the rocks of Gimnesias surrounded by the sea, they dragged their existence covered with hairy skins, without clothes, barefoot, armed with three double-rope slings. And mothers teach their youngest children, fasting, the art of pulling; since none of them will taste the bread with their mouths if before, with a precise stone, they do not hit a piece placed on a stick as a target." Lycophron of Chalcis (3rd century BC)

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Europa Occidentalis, circa 300 BC (?) map originally posted by Eoforhild in 'Celtic tribes'.
(*I have edited my previous posts in this thread.)
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