[research] etruscans

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Artwork by Graham Sumner  :arrow: http://gsillustrator.co.uk/work.php?type=1
from the book: "Roman Conquests - Italy"

Etruscan Hoplite and Roman Hastatus 310 BC

Roman legionary (right), with a scutum, Montefortino helmet and pectoral armour typical of the
mid-fourth to early third century BC, battles an Etruscan noble (left), whose equipment, including
the weighted pilum, is modelled after a late fourth century BC tomb painting from Tarquinii.



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well belt seems to be samnite (oscan type)
and at the moment we know that pteruges were not popular in inttally
maybe that is the key why.

Seek n Destroy

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Thanks, read both and they're a nice addition to what we currently have on the Etruscans, furthermore it does some mentions on resources, trade, important battles and locations which can be helpful for the singleplayer.


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Decorated Roman Armour: From the Age ofthe Kings to the Death
of Justinian the Great
, By Raffaele d'Amato & Andrey Evgenevich Negin



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"The Etruscans, 9th–2nd Centuries BC"
Selected plates...


(1) Lars Porsenna, Lucumo of Clevsin, with chariot
This is a reconstruction of the Etruscan king immortalized for generations of British schoolboys by Macaulay’s poem Horatius at the Bridge.
While there would have been some variations in their equipment, it is likely that the heavily-armoured dynatotatoi would have had a complete panoply:
here, a full Corinthian helmet with high lophos, a painted ‘bell-shaped’ cuirass, protections for the thighs, and greaves decorated with embossed lion-masks.
His cloak and helmet-crest are in purple and gold, symbolizing his royal power. The chariot is based on a splendid example from Monteleone da Spoleto,
decorated with bronze panels representing the myth of Achilles.

(2) Rasenna hoplite of the first class, Clevsin
First-class hoplites wore defences similar to the Greeks, although produced by their own armourers.
This high-status warrior, copied from the Tomba della Scimmia (480 BC), has a Chalcidian helmet with
Italic-style feather plumes flanking the crest. His early muscled cuirass shows red-lacquered shoulder-guards.
He is otherwise protected by greaves, and by a hoplon shield decorated with a possible city blazon.
His weapons are a spear and (obscured here) a curved, single-edged kopis sword.

(3) Etruscan horn-player
The simply-dressed hornist plays the precious specimen of a cornu now preserved in the Museo Nazionale Etrusco, Villa Giulia, Rome. This bronze horn is smaller than the later specimens of the Roman Imperial period; derived from prehistoric ox-horn instruments, it is almost circular in shape (ex aere ricurvo). The cross-brace in the middle, to help the hornist hold it steady, was not always present.


(1) Roman tribunus Aulus Cossus, 437 BC

This officer is based on accounts by Livy and on the bone plaques from Praeneste showing Latin hoplites.
He is armed with a spear and a two-edged xiphos sword, and carries a round clipeum shield. The crest and
diadem of his Attic-type helmet are (hypothetically) shown here in the same colour. His leather muscled armour is
copied from the Roman warrior depicted in the so-called ‘François Tomb’; it was probably moulded and hardened by
the cuir-bouilli technique that would be used until the Middle Ages.

(2) Tolumnius, Lucumo of Veii

Livy (IV, 17-19) and Plutarch (Romulus, XVI) give us important attestations to the employment of the linothorax by an Etruscan king.
Following the single combat between King Tolumnius of Veii and Aulus Cornelius Cossus in 437 BC, the former’s linen armour was dedicated
at the temple of Jupiter Feretrius: ‘... Then he [Aulus] despoiled the lifeless body, and cutting off the head stuck it on his spear, and, carrying
it in triumph, routed the enemy… He solemnly dedicated the spoils to Jupiter Feretrius, and hung them in his temple… Augustus Caesar …
read that inscription on the linen cuirass with his own eyes.’

(3) Rasenna archer

The use of the composite recurved bow (arcus sinuosus) is attested on painted plaques of the Tarquinii period; constructed of bonded wood and horn,
it would have required great strength to draw. Vergil quotes the Etruscan archers using the quiver or leves gorytus (X, 16:cool:.


(1) Aristocratic Rasenna woman

This Etruscan lady is copied from the Tomba dell’Orco frescoes, and is dressed in the common fashion of ‘Magna Graecia’:
a garlanded headdress, discoid earrings, a long cloak over a pleated linen tunic, and calcei repandi on her feet.

(2) Rasenna hoplite from Velzna

Reconstruction of the warrior from the Settecamini tomb near Orvieto, which yielded a Montefortino-style helmet, a shield and a muscled cuirass.
Archaeological fragments of Etruscan shields from graves in Perugia and Settecamini give us clear evidence for the heavy phalanx style of fighting
in the 5th–4th centuries. The central position of the porpax arm-loop shows that it passed around the arm just below the elbow (see G1), with a
handgrip near the rim; this was useful only in the linear ‘shield wall’ formation typical of the hoplite phalanx.

(3) Rasenna hoplite from Tutere

One of the most spectacular statues of warriors, the nearly life-size ‘Mars of Todi’ dated to about 350 BC,
shows the employment of lamellar armour. The lamellae could be in bronze or – as suggested by their white
colour in many artistic representations – of white metal, or even of an organic material such as bone.


(1) Rasenna mercenary, Tarchuna

An inscription from Tarquinia attests to the mercenary service of one of its townsmen at Capua during the Second Punic War.
This warrior is copied from the so-called ‘Amazons Sarcophagus’ from Tarquinia, on which the decoration of each corselet is individualized,
reflecting real-life practice. One of the major differences between Greek and Etruscan linen corselets in the monuments is that the latter
are much more often decorated with painted floral and vegetal patterns.

(2) Rasenna marine, Roman fleet, Punic Wars

Etruscan marines served in the Roman fleet during the Punic Wars. The urns from Volterra which represent sailors or marines of the 3rd–1st centuries
show the use of conical felt caps (piloi) and padded or quilted garments, probably made of felt and wool (coactiles and centones). The sea-fighters
often employed axes (secures) and long, complex polearms (drepana) to cut the rigging of enemy ships when they came together for boarding actions.

(3) Aristocratic eques Marcnal Tetina; Clevsin, 225–200 BC

The last period of Etruscan armour-making shows the employment of composite armours with linen, padded and scale elements.
Richly elaborated ‘Hellenistic’ helmets seem to be represented, worn by warriors on Etruscan urns from Volterra dated around 200 BC.
These are often of the Phrygian shape, with a forward-curling extension of the dome, decorated cheek-guards, and two feather side-plumes.


1) Lictor

Painted urns from Volterra show cornicines and lictores attending victors or magistrates;
this lictor is copied from the Tomba del Convegno (Monterozzi necropolis, Tarquinia).
He is wearing the toga gabina and carries an iron double-axe (bipennis).

(2) Eques

An unusual urn from Volterra, representing the myth of Eteocles and Polynices,
shows the brothers dressed like Roman cavalrymen of the period, with Boeotian
helmets fitted with the geminae pinnae of Mars, shields of popanum typology,
leather armour (spolas), greaves, and short swords.

(3) Centurio

This Roman centurion, copied from an urn in Florence Museum,
wears a pseudo-Corinthian helmet fitted with a crista transversa.
His composite armour is made of leather (shoulder-guards), padded material (main corselet),
and on the chest bronze scales (squamae). Note his calcei boots, and the richly varied colours of his panoply.

(4) Guardsman

Reconstructed from the Sarteana urn, this Roman miles wears a late Montefortino helmet found in Forum Novum.
His body armour combines a bronze kardiophylax breastplate and a linothorax corselet. We have added a single left
greave and the curved oblong legionary scutum of his time; his weapons are the hasta and the deadly gladius hispaniensis.

(5) Magistrate

The absorption of Etruria into Rome saw leading Etruscan families climbing the government hierarchy.
This official, copied from the famous statue of Aule Metele, wears the toga exigua over a tunica; the latter’s
purple angusticlavi, and the gold ring on his left hand, identify him as a member of the equestrian order.
Hidden here, he would also be wearing high calcei boots with lingula, and fastened by corrigiae.