For me, if I was sent from everything I love and cherish and worked for, would be pretty demoralizing.
But I'd recover slowly. First off, I'd probably start in one of 3 ages. Eithier in Ancient Mesopotamia, approx 2150-2100 BCE and help rally the Akkadians and Sumerians to push out barbarian invaders and secure a peaceful kingdom, a self sufficient one at that that can defend itself.
That or start in 1629 and be in the Caribbean, and become a small time pirate captain, using my seamanship and financial intenuity to my advantage.
I might also start during the year 1053, in the Moorish kingdoms in Spain and work as a mercenary captain, or a warlord.
As for my overall strategy, at first I'd get my bearings. Know where I am, scout out places, find food and secure a campsite if I can. Then I'd use whatever langauges I have to communicate with people at hand. With Muslim and Christain Spain I'll probably get along just fine, as I speak Arabic as my first langauge (and even though their dialect would be vastly different and ye olde type, I can adapt.)
Same goes with spanish. Im more of a slang speaker when it comes to spanish but I can probably get the message across.
As for the Caribbean, I can speak Spanish and English. Rough english at that due to my accent, but I won't have to worry too much about diffrent dialects. By this time English was is a bit more familiar to the modern tongue.
The real challange will be Sumeria and Akkad. I know some pathetic amounts of the old tongue's, and its really jsut basic things or utter nonsense of no relevance. I'll learn though, I'll probably just take the guise of a warrior or what not, and no one will really try to rob me due to my threatining appearance. I might have trouble with city guards being suspicous, but I'll try not to cause trouble, just listen to conversations in the market place and catch what I can.
As for how I will do my goals, I'll start with Sumeria and Akkad.
The land and city states over here are pretty chaotic. Things are not too safe due to Gutian tribesmen invading and numerous other bastard ****s invading Akkad and Sumeria. Akkad has actually fallen from power, and Sargons empire is basically crumbling. People are fleeing and what not and there is a burdening cry for mercenaries and able bodied men for war. I'd probably take this to my advantage and using my knowledge from m yown past and applying it, I should fare a good chance. Of course I'd take my time to get used to the weapons I'd find first, but generally I think I'd fare well, especially for the fact im a bit healthier then most people from back then. Im not saying ancient folk were unhealthy, scrawny ****s, some of them were brutes in their own right and for the lot of them, far more stronger and active then most today. But I think my body would be pretty considerable in this situation.
As for the latter part, after gaining respect from my fellow soldiers, I'd probably start my own mercenary company. Also, knowing my geography I would setup trade routes to merchants I'd be associated with, and I'd start a small, tightly defended mercantile business. After that I'd use my wealth and respect among my soldiers to help drive off any barbarians with the cities paying me in good amounts, of which I would use to help build a strong frontier. I would suspect due to my popularity/ power that the kingdoms and city states would try to assasinate or kill me somehow, so I would eventually form a coup detat in each of the cities by inciting riots and revolts among the populace.
After that is done I'd secure order, and rule the kingdom as a dictator. I'd make sure the priesthood was supressed, as the priesthood in this time was extremely corrupt and oppressive. The priesthood at this time taxed nearly half of a farmer's crops, and it angered many people. A certain king rose to power by toppling the priesthood and he got in via popularity. I would also make allies with this king, King Umma I beleive his name was, and with neighbouring kingdoms and city states. Ruling my city state now, I would secure the defences of it. I am not aiming for conquest, rather a sustainable state that I can ensure will last for centuries. I would also introduce the idea of democratic council, where citizens are allowed to vote. Education would be free due to my massive intake of wealth, and the education would be focused on military matters and business mainly. Art is also encouraged due to the fact it can help secure people's faith/ create a national identity.
I would probably leave power after a number of years or so. The council would rule form there on, and people will be able to vote. The education would be applied to each household or person, regardless of sex. I'd also make sure scribes would record anyone who is born here from there on, and so forth.
Anyone who permanently lives in the city has the right to vote.
I'd also use my knowledge of modern science and medicine to help revolutionize the production capacity and medical knowledge to help increase the living standards and wealth of my state.
As for Medieval Spain, I would probably try to find local lords and warlords who are looking for men to hire. I'd serve in their army for a said number of years, then use the wealth I gain to get businesses up and running. After that'd I'd probably just find a nice little place to retire.
As for the pirates life, since I'd be shit poor for all of these, I'd probably take to the jungles of whatever island I was on. Then surviving there for a bit, getting recon for the coast, I'd probably join up with a pirate or privateer crew and sally forth with them for a while. Using any loot I get, I'd probably save up for a long while. Once I get enough I'll probably eithier keep on being a regular pirate or get a small ship of my own, using my good relations with my former crew and any other maggots I meet to my advantage of having profitable friendships by making sure my trading lanes are safeguarded. I'd also do piracy on the side with my ship, being half a merchant and privateer for hire. Then when I get to my elder years, I'd find a good place to settle down and be hushed.
As for items, it will vary between the era's. For Ancient Sumer and Akkad, I'd go for my Grandfathers Great Two handed scimitar. Steel was certainly not invented in this time, nor was that qaulity of craftsmenship. With a godlike weapon compared to the others, I'd surely have an advantage.
For Spain, I'd probably go for the sword again.
For the age of piracy, I'd probably go with a good old fashioned qaulity compass and astrolabe. I want something that'll help me with my navigation do I not?
That sums it up basically.
I'd also like to go to the American/Mexican wild west but thats considered Industrial.
For relationships, I don't know. I may see a woman I fancy and may have children I'd bear with her, but to be honest my wife (and expected baby) from the present era would be sorely missed. I'd probably never recover from that.